in swimming pools. Behavioral and physical factors: 19 20 Worldwide, people with epilepsy are more likely to die due to accidents such as drowning. "The pathophysiology of drowning" (PDF). Archived from the original on Retrieved Mackensen,. "The RID factor as a cause of drowning". The person can voluntarily hold his or her breath for some time, but the breathing reflex will increase until the person tries to breathe, even when submerged. Bull World Health Organ. Archived from the original on Retrieved Tobin, JM; Rossano JW; Wernicki PG (2017). 4 5, risk factors include alcohol use, epilepsy, and low socioeconomic status. Physiological responses to even small quantities include the extrusion of liquid into the lungs ( pulmonary edema ) over the following hours, but this reduces the ability to exchange air and can lead to a person "drowning in their own body fluid". 49 Rescuers retrieving a child from water significantly below body temperature should attempt resuscitation even after protracted immersion. 25 26 A continued lack of oxygen in the brain, hypoxia, will quickly render a person unconscious usually around a blood partial pressure of oxygen of 2530 mmHg. Archived from the original on Retrieved "Lifesaving Position Statement LPS 17: Definition of Drowning". 43 Drowning would be considered as a possible cause of death when the body was recovered from a body of water, or in close proximity to a fluid which could plausibly have caused drowning, or when found with the head immersed in a fluid. Factors affecting probability of long term recovery with mild deficits or full function in young children include the duration of submersion, whether advanced life support was needed at the accident site, the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and whether spontaneous breathing and circulation are present. France revived the practice during the French Revolution (17891799) and it was carried out by Jean-Baptiste Carrier at Nantes. Hyperventilation is often used by both deep and distance free-divers to flush out carbon dioxide from the lungs to suppress the breathing reflex for longer.